Pragmatics and Classical Sanskrit: A Pilot Study in Linguistic Politeness

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The fact that cultural scripts are directly translatable from one language to another and that they can be accessed, so to speak, via any language whatsoever, ensures their universal and culture-independent character. Natural semantic metalanguage provides us with a universal system of notation for stating and conq aring tacit cultural rules in terms of which different societies operate and in terms of which we can understand and make sense of differential communicative behavior. The latest version of the lexicon of this metalanguage, arrived at by trial and error on the basis of two decades of cross-linguistic lexi- cographic research, includes the following elements: [substantives] I, you, someone, something, people [determiners, quantifiers] this, the same, other, one, two, many much , all [mental predicates] know, want, think, feel, say [actions, events] do, happen [evaluative] good, bad [descriptors] big, small [intensifier] very [meta-predicates] can, if, because, no negation , like how [time and place] when, where, after before , under above [taxonomy, partonymy] kind of, part of "Cultural Scripts"; A Semantic Approach to Cultural Analysis and Cross-Cultural Communication 21 These elements have their own, language-independent syntax.

For fuller discussion, see Wierzbicka, c. What will prove to be universal to the species will be determined by evidence yet to be col- lected and theories yet to be created. Talking black. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Alberti, R. Stand up, speak out, talk back! The key to self-assertive behavior. New York: Pocket Books.

Baer, J. How to be an assertive not aggressive woman in life, in love, and on the job: A total guide to self-assertiveness. New York: Signet. Baker, Sidney. Tbedrum: Australian character and slang. Sydney: Currawong. Basso, K. To give up on words: Silence in Western Apache culture. Southwest Journal of Antrhopology, 26, Befu, H. Japan: An anthropological introduction. San Francisco: Chandler. Gift-giving in a modernizing Japan.

Lebra Eds. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii. Bellah, Richard, et al. Habits of the Heart. Individualism and Commitment in Ameri- can Life. Berkeley: University of California Press. Bond, M. Finding the middle way: The role of emotions in Chinese life. Bruner, J. Acts of meaning. Carbaugh, D. Talking American: Cultural discourses on Donahue. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Carnegie, D. How to win friends and influence people rev. Caudill, W. Maternal care and infant tehavior in Japan and America. Psychiatry, 32, Clancy, P. The acquisition of communicative style in Japanese. Ochs Eds.

The role of the Japanese sentence-flnal particle nn in the socialization of children. Multilingua, 9 4 , Coulmas, Florian. Conversational Routine. The Hague: Mouton. In Coulmas a, pp. Dale, Peter. The myth of Japanese Uniqueness. New York: St. The myth of Japanese uniqueness revisited. Doi, Tlikeo.

The anatomy of self. Tokyo: Kodansha. Fischer, J. The nature of speech according to Japanese proverbs. Journal of American Folklore, 81, Cambridge, Mass. Giles, H. Kwok, Eds. London: Routledge. Communicator characteristics. Gudykunst Eds. Newbury Park: Sage. Goddard, C.

Semantic and lexical universals. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Goldstein, B. Japan and America: A comparative study in language and culture. Rutland, VT Tuttle. Goodwin, Marjorie. He-said-she-said: talk as a social organization among black chil- dren. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Gudykunst, W. Social cognition and intergroup communication. Communcating with strangers: An approach to intercultural communication. New York: Random House. Theoretical perspectives for studying intercultural communication. Hall, E. Beyond culture. New York: Anchor Books. The dance of life.

New York: Doubleday.

Harkness, Sara. Human development in psychological anthropology. Schwartz, G. White, C. Lutz Eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hofstede, G. Dimensions of national cultures in fifty countries and three regions. Deregowski, S. Annis Eds. Holdwka, Ibresa. MySlenie potoczne: HeterogenicznoSd zdrowego rozsgdku. Warszawa: Padstwowy Instytut Wydawniczy. The lucky country: Australia in the sixties. Ringwood, Vic. Kataoka, Hiroko.

Lincolnwood: Passport Books. In: Donal Carbaugh, ed. Two Japanese particles: Semantics as a key to pragmatics, culture, and society. Unpublished manuscript, Australian National University. Kitayama, S. Construal of the self as cultural frame: Implications for internationalizing psychology. Kochman, T. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Black and white styles in conflict.

Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Labov, W. Rules for ritual insults. Sudnow Ed. New York: Free Press. Lebra, T. Reciprocity and the asymmetric principle: An analytical reappraisal of the Japanese concept of on. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Japanese patterns of behavior. Mitchell-Keman, C. Language behavior in a black urban community. Mizutani, O. How to be polite in Japanese. Tokyo: The Japan Times. Morsbach, H. Nonverbal co m munication and hierarchical relationships: The case of bowing in Japan.

Poyatos Ed. Toronto: Hogrefe. Aspects of non-verbal conmunication in Japan. Lecture given at the Australian National University. Mutch, Karen. Can you have a broken heart in Japanese? Explorations in idiomatic expressions that use body-part terms in order to denote emotions. Canberra: Australian National University, B. Hons, thesis. Nakane, C. Japanese society. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. Nakatsugawa, K. Japanese ways of speaking: A reflection of culture.

Unpublished manuscript. Department of Linguistics, Australian National University. Oliver, R. Conmunication and culture in ancient India and China. Syracuse: Syra- cuse University Press, N. Owen, M. Apologies and remedial interchanges. Robinson, W. Robinson Eds. LeVine Eds. Cambridge: Cambridge Uni- versity Press. Shweder, Richard. A colloquy of culture theorists. Cambridge: Cam- bridge University Press. Smith, M. When I say no, I feel guilty: How to cope — using the skills of systematic assertive therapy.

New York: Bantam. Stevenson, B. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Travis, C. How to be kind, compassionate arui considerate in Japanese. Ueda, K. Saito Eds. Ibkyo: Simul Press. Wierzbicka, A. English speech act verbs: A semantic dictionary. Sydney: Academic. The semantics of grammar. Soul and mind: linguistic evidence for ethnopsychology and cultural history. American Anthropologist 88 3 , Cross-cultural pragmatics: The semantics of human interaction. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Japanese key words and core cultural values.

Language in Society, 20, Lexical universals and imiversals of grammar. Wierzbicka, Anna. In: Andr6 Clas, Ed. Montreal: Les Presses de rUniversit6 de Montr6al. Semantics, culture and cognition: Universal human concepts in culture-specific configurations. New York: Oxford University Press. The search for universal semantic primitives. Piitz Ed. In press. Cultural scripts: Linguistic evidence for cultural norms. There are, however, predictable differ- ences in degree arising from a one-many or many-one language learning situ- ation common to both contexts as opposed to a many-many language learning situation typical of a multilingual context.

Against the backgroimd of lan- guage learning and teaching in Nigeria, issues of policy especially with re- gard to language choice at given levels of education , attitudes, curriculum, material, teacher, and culture are examined and attention is drawn to the prob- lems arising from these factors in relation to some current approaches to lan- guage learning and teaching. Second language learning occurs in a variety of contexts including foreign versus non- foreign environment, formal versus informal setting, and monolingual versus multilingual situ- ation. A foreign environment is one in which the intended target language is not normally used.

On the other hand, a non-foreign environment can be either one where the target language is natively spoken or at least used as an official language. Hence someone learning English in England or in Nigeria is said to be learning it as a second language. The distinction between a second language L2 and a foreign language FL is not based on the environment of acquisition alone.

The possibilities of informal acquisition and development of non-native varieties are also characteristics of a L2. A formal setting is a structured one designed specifically for language learning. This is typically the classroom. An informal setting, however, is a natural one where a learner picks up a language through interaction with those who speak it.

Let US refer to this as the many-one situation. This we may call the one-many situation. Both these situations also occur in a multilingual context. For example, several SL groups in Nigeria learning English will count as a many-one situation, while a single SL group learning English and another Nigerian language counts as a one-many situation. The one situation which is bnly typical of a multilingual context is the existence of sev- eral dominant SL groups and not just minorities trying to acquire several target languages.

For example, when major language groups in Nigeria acquire English, another Nigerian lan- guage and a foreign language, this is not comparable to minority SL groups in a monolingual situation acquiring the dominant language and perhaps thereafter a foreign language. In fact, such a case is more like two sequential situations: a many-one followed by a one-many situa- tion.

The multilingual case is more aptly referred to as a many-many situation. The other way the difference between a monolingual and a multilingual situation may be characterized is by the type of language acquired. What is even more interesting is that it is only in a multilingual situation that more than one L2 may be acquired.

Pragmatics and Classical Sanskrit: A pilot study in linguistic politeness | Lieve Van de Walle

The differences observed are not so much differences in kind but rather in degree. It follows from the compari- son that the same SLA theories may be found useful for both contexts, and similar problems in respect of methodology, syllabus design, teacher training, preparation of materials etc. However, the few differences identified point to a greater complexity in second language acquisition in a multilingual context. Similarly, materials have to be prepared for learning and instruction in many more languages, attitudes especially as they affect imple- mentation of policy have to be considered, and the ever-present problem of cultural bias and cultural interference has to be taken account of, especially in so far as it affects communication and the content of teaching materials.

It is these problems that are taken up in the rest of this paper, particularly in the light of the Nigerian experience. The basic manifestation of the policy is language choice: Which languages are to be taught in the educational system and at which levels? What problems may be encountered in the implementation of the adopted policy? The choice of languages depends on a number of factors including historical, political, demographic, economic, religious, and linguistic. The historical factor includes practices that have been in existence for a long time.

For example, the use of English as a medium of instruc- tion from upper primary grades to the tertiary level in most African countries that were for- merly British colonies is largely due to the historical factor. The political factor is concerned with the role assigned to a language in the framework of the nation or the international community. The demographic factor concerns the relative weighting given to languages based on number of speakers.

Other things being equal, a language with ten million speakers is likely to be given greater prominence in the educational policy than one with half a million speakers. The economic factor is often enq loyed in a negative sense to rule out languages whose inclusion in the educational system may be very expensive. But it is equally possible to apply the economic factor to the opportunity cost of compulsory instruction in a second language measured in terms of high drop-out rate, poor performance, high cost of inerted expertise and the consequences of the use of ill-adapted material Bokamba andTlou The religious factor leads to the inclusion of a language of religion in the educational An example of this is the provision for the teaching of Arabic as a foreign language in ERIC a.

The linguistic factor is concerned with the state of languages to be selected for use in education. Languages that already have good descriptions including grammars and dictionar- ies as well as substantial literature stand a better chance of being selected in contrast to those that are yet to be reduced to writing or adequately described. French and Arabic Choosing which languages should be taught appears to be a much easier task than decid- ing at which level each language will feature.

The age-old convention dating back to the mis- sionary days has been to start with the mother tongue as a medium of instruction and continue with it for the first three years of primary education. Thereafter, English takes over as the medium of instruction till the end of the educational cycle. However, English is taught as a subject from the beginning. The main bone of contention has always been the position of English in relation to the local languages. Should the teaching of English commence as soon as possible becoming the medium of instruction as early as possible or should a thorough grounding be given furst in the mother tongue before English takes over as the medium of instruction?

The pendulum has generally swung from one of these positions to the other, with the missionary practice serving as the mean between the two extremes. At the other end of the scale, an experimental project known as the Six- Year Primary Project involv- ing the use of an African language as a medium of instruction for the entire elementary educa- tion, with English taught as a subject only, was introduced in in one school in Oyo State and subsequently extended to several other schools Fafunwa et. In spite of these variations, the traditional 3 plus 3 language medium is still the norm in most elementary schools.

The National Policy on Education adopts the traditional division of levels be- tween Nigerian languages and English; but it also prescribes a language of the immediate com- munity as an alternative to the mother tongue both at pre-primary and primary levels, while makin g it mandatory for one of the three major languages to be taught at L2 at Junior Second- ary School. French and Arabic are optional foreign languages also to be offered at secondary level. It is easier to prescribe than to enforce the levels at which languages are to be taught.

The parents who send their children to such schools prefer English and that is what they get. The question of attitudes has to be seriously considered. It is the lack of interest in a mother tongue nmlium that is responsible for the derailment of this policy at pre- primary level.

Similarly, it is the lack of interest in the acquisition of a major Nigerian lan- guage, especially on the part of speakers of small-group languages in addition to lack of teach- ers that has virtually killed the second Nigerian language policy. It is generally accepted that there is a positive correlation between attitudes and motiva- tion on the one hand and achievement on the other. Yet, experience has shown that there are cases in which attitudes are favourable and motivation quite high without a commen- surate outcome in terms of achievement.

In Nigeria, there is overwhelming interest in the acquisition of English to the extent that in some elite families, English is forced on the children as the language of communication, while education in English-medium schools is highly favoured. In a small study of patterns of language use in the office, Adegbija reports percentages ranging from 80 to 98 percent in favour of English use in all activities except informal discussion with workmates. Yet, in spite of the great interest, performance in English in secondary school certificate examination and University Matriculation examination has been very poor in the last few years.

It follows from this that factors such as aptitude, learning Q ' onment, teaching facilities, adequate supply of teachers, suitable curriculum and method- 30 Ayo Bamgbose ology all have a role to play in the outcome of the learning encounter. Appel and Muysken have drawn attention to studies showing that motivation may not necessarily be a good predictor of success in second language acquisition. Attitudes and subsequent motivation result from certain social- political conditions. According to Schumann successful learning means becoming part of the target culture.

If the second language learner feels superior a: inferior to speakers of the target language, he or she will not learn the second language well. If this is so, one would wonder how subjugated colonial subjects made to feel inferior and ultimately accepting that they are inferior have managed to learn and be proflcient in the English language?

Structures rule-governed language structures and their use in communication.

Pragmatics and Classical Sanskrit

Spoken English, Writing especially effective communication in the written medium. Literature, and Evaluation of at- tainment in the various skills. The theoretical basis of the syllabus is presented as follows: Methodologically, there are three approaches to syllabus construction. First, we have the grammar-induced syllabus motivated by the need to internalize the rules and sentence structures of the language to the point of automaticity. But the Nigerian experience in English language usage in our schools reveals that our problems cannot be solved if we restrict ourselves to a particular approach in syllabus con- struction.

Consequently our approach is eclectic, for we have drawn from each of the three approaches with a view to solving our problems. FMEST The kind of syllabus with which this behaviourist model is associated has been called Structural-Oral-Situation S-O-S Pedagogy which Prabhu describes as the use of structurally and lexically graded syl- labuses, situational presentation of all new teaching items, balanced attention to the four lan- guage skills but with listening and speaking preceding reading and writing and a great deal of controlled practice using techniques such as substitution and choral repetition.

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While ELT in the Nigerian context has beneflted from in-depth studies of inadequacies of mere structural syllabuses, with suggestions for the need to take into consideration varieties of use, registers, style, vocabulary development Grieve , the syllabuses in Nigerian L2 and French have not progressed very much from the audio-lingual approach with a progression from oracy to literacy, while the situational material in the case of Nigerian languages moves from naming to greetings, followed by other cultural situations in the home, in the market place, on the farm etc.

What exists is a conununicative methodology since even a structural syllabus can be taught in a conummi- cative manner. This is my head! Obviously, the expression has nothing to do with the situation in which it is uttered. All that it goes to show is that the poor child is showing off the little English that he knows, and who better to do it to than a native English speaker?

It is perhaps inevitable that a certain amount of non-functional structures will be intro- duced in the early stages of language learning. However, it is important to move away from the abstract context of classroom acquisition to application of such structures to appropriate real-life situations. One other example of the inadequacy of a structural approach is the universal exercise of the shortened answer which learners are encouraged to produce in place of the long one.

Are you coming? Is she yoimg? Bouton has drawn attention to the need to qualify such answers in the light of pragmatic perspective. As he rightly observes, short answers are inappropriate to questions such as: One sinqily does not give such short answers without some apology or reassurance to indicate that no slight is intended. Underlying any curriculum design and methodology is a theory of language acquisition.

As far as SLA is concerned, some of these theories, including the Monitor Model, information processing model, acculturation model, and motivation-aptitude model have been mentioned in the course of the preceding discussion. One other interesting model not specifically men- tioned is the Bangalore Project task-based model in which language form is learnt through a concentration on meaning Brumfit , Prabhu This same view is reinforced by Larsen-Freeman and Long when they say: at the moment SLA research does reveal to a certain extent what learners do and what they know.

It has not yet, however, reached the point where we can say with assurance how they have come to do and to know these things, and we are further still from saying what teaching practices should therefore fol- low. What all this shows is that models and theories of SLA are to be taken as a guide and no rigid adherence to a specific one is called for, since no single model or theory may be consid- ered adequate for now for all ramifications of second language teaching and learning.

How- ever, any theory that ignores the role of the first language in second language acquisition or plays down the communicative role of the second language in a social context is most likely to be farthest from any claim of adequacy. Are you going to miss our party tonight? Did you lose the book I gave you? Yes, I am. Yes, I did. Within this variety, which examples can be considered appropriate, especially taking into consideration learner needs as well as social and pragmatic uses of the language? In teaching a foreign language, the question of variety or model of the language to be taught does not present a major problem.

In the case of an L2, however, another dimension arises because of the institutionalized and generally acceptable varieties which qualify to be used as mcxlels of teaching and acquisi- tion. English as a second language provides a good example of the considerations that come into play in this regard. Notwithstanding the concerns of those who believe in a monolithic international standard English as the proper norm for SLA, the case for pluralism of standards arising from nativization of English in non-native contexts ably put by Kachru , is now generally accepted in ELT circles.

Thus, the norm of English to be taught in Nigeria will be different from that of Liberia and both of them will be considered different but not inferior to native varieties. There are, however, two problems that have to be tackled. First, since each non-native variety con- sists of subvarieties ranging from educated standard to sub-standard and pidginized forms, which subvariety does one consider as representing the norm for the variety? Second, how acceptable are speciflc usages especially for purposes of teaching and examining?

In relation to the first problem, experience has shown that certain extremes can be easily eliminated and a broad consensus reached on an educated standard. The second problem of which usages to accept and which to reject constitutes a more serious problem. The conq lexity of this problem can be illus- trated in the results of a study conducted by Williams Forty items including pluraliza- tion of mass nouns, omission of definite article, adjective used as verb, wrong question tag etc. In general, the results showed that the higher the level of education, the greater the rejection of the so-called Nigerianisms.

But there were also inconsistencies. What this shows is that although Nigerian English is a reality, there is still a lot of indeterminacy when it comes to particular expressions that should be admitted, espe- cially for teaching and examining purposes Bamgbose In considering what is appropriate and what is not, linguistic appropriateness in terms of O iciness of rules or variety is only one aspect.

Texts must also be geared to learner needs and 34 Ayo Bamgbose opportunities for use. For a text meant for American students arriving in Northern Nigeria, this may make sense, but the utility of this expression for functioning generally in that part of the coun- try is almost nil. Several manual s for teaching second or foreign African languages often start with greetings.

From my experience in Germany, a manual for Africans learning German should give high priority to the teaching of numerals. This is because one has to use them in everyday encoimters in the shops, banks, supermarkets, restaurants, etc. The famous ELT drill. Go to the door. What are you doingl, I am going to the door.

Its pragmatic use is virtually nil as it is limited to classroom exchange. Bamgbose identifles two kinds of cultural interference: language-motivated and culture-motivated. For exanqtle, the transfer of the word order of one language to another may appear to be no more than a mere linguistic phenomenon. The relevance of cultural interference in the selection of texts is the bearing it has on appropriateness. What is culturally appropriate in one situation may not be in another.

For example. Textbook writers have to be sensitive to such expressions as well as to negative value-laden terms rooted in Anglo-Saxon culture. Observed biases in American ESL teaching materials are said to include sexism, racism, ageism, elitism, heterosexism, etc. Littlejohn and Windeatt The context in which second language teaching takes place is therefore often charac- terized by inadequate teacher strength, and poorly qualified or even unqualified teachers.

The outcome from such teaching is expected to be at least a rudimentary oral acquaintance with the language. Needless to say, this is a most unsatisfactory practice, and it is not surprising that it has been singularly unsuccessful in the Junior High Schools where it was meant to operate. Second language teachers of Nigerian languages are made to specialize in their first language as well as a Nigerian L2. Because they major in two languages, their value as language teachers is further enhanced.

What remains to be done is the need to recognize specialist teachers of English at all levels of education, including the primary school. Students admitted to this Institute will major in two Nigerian languages, and be given a reasonable background in linguistics and methodology.

A pilot study in linguistic politeness

Such specialized training is a sensible approach to the second language teacher problem. One of the recurrait problems in pre-service training of language teachers is the need to give them maximum exposure, especially to the spoken form of the language. This scheme worked out very well when foreign aid was easily obtained, and the Nigerian economy itself was strong enough to sustain the cost of fares to Europe for all language students. In the era of poor funding, an alternative was foimd in sending students to the neighbouring West African country of Togo. Even that has now become too expensive.

For Nigerian languages, acculturation is effected through exchange programs between in- stitutions in different parts of the country. The teacher problem discussed above is intended to show that no matter how good a language policy is, how effective the curriculum, and how adequate the teaching materials, not much can be achieved without the guidance of a qualified teacher. As the trite saying goes, it is better to have poor materials in the hands of a good teacher than excellent materials in the hands of a bad teacher.

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