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Read more. Number of protein-coding transcribed from this gene as defined by Ensembl.
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The Tissue Atlas contains information regarding the expression profiles of human genes both on the mRNA and protein level. The protein expression data from 44 normal human tissue types is derived from antibody-based protein profiling using immunohistochemistry.
CCR2 Antibody (NBP): Novus Biologicals
The categories include: tissue enriched, group enriched, tissue enhanced, low tissue specificity and not detected. The categories include: detected in all, detected in many, detected in some, detected in single and not detected. Protein evidence scores are generated from several independent sources and are classified as evidence at i protein level, ii transcript level, iii no evidence, or iv not available.
View primary data. Standardized explanatory sentences with additional information required for full understanding of the protein expression profile, based on knowledge-based and secretome-based annotation. The reliability score is based on the 44 normal tissues analyzed, and if there is available data from more than one antibody, the staining patterns of all antibodies are taken into consideration during evaluation.
Analyzed tissues are divided into color-coded groups according to which functional features they have in common. For each group, a list of included tissues is accessed by clicking on group name, group symbol, RNA bar, or protein bar. Subsequent selection of a particular tissue in this list links to the image data page. All organs. To access sample data, click on tissue name or bar. Each bar represents the highest expression score found in a particular group of tissues. For genes where more than one antibody has been used, a collective score is set displaying the estimated true protein expression.
Cerebral cortex. Cervix, uterine. Lymph node. For genes with available protein data for which a knowledge-based annotation gave inconclusive results, no protein expression data is displayed in the protein expression data overview. However, all immunohistochemical images are still available and the annotation data can be found under Primary data.
CD markers G-protein coupled receptors Predicted membrane proteins. Read more Group enriched blood, lymphoid tissue.
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Cytoplasmic expression in several tissues, most abundant in lymphoid tissues. Expression Detection All organs. Protein expression score i Each bar represents the highest expression score found in a particular group of tissues. Olfactory region. Cerebral cortex Endothelial cells:. Hippocampal formation. Hippocampus Glial cells:. Basal ganglia. Caudate Glial cells:. Pons and medulla. Cerebellum Cells in granular layer:. Corpus callosum. Spinal cord. Endocrine tissues. Thyroid gland. Thyroid gland Glandular cells:. Parathyroid gland. Parathyroid gland Glandular cells:.
Adrenal gland. Adrenal gland Glandular cells:. Pituitary gland. Nasopharynx Respiratory epithelial cells:. Bronchus Respiratory epithelial cells:. Lung Macrophages:. Proximal digestive tract. Oral mucosa. Oral mucosa Squamous epithelial cells:. Salivary gland. Salivary gland Glandular cells:.
Esophagus Squamous epithelial cells:. Gastrointestinal tract. Stomach 1 Stomach 2 Glandular cells:. Duodenum Glandular cells:. Small intestine. Small intestine Glandular cells:. Colon Endothelial cells:. Rectum Glandular cells:. Liver Bile duct cells:. Gallbladder Glandular cells:. Pancreas Exocrine glandular cells:.
Kidney Cells in glomeruli:. Urinary bladder.
Urinary bladder Urothelial cells:. Male tissues. Mice were fed regular laboratory chow or a high-fat Western diet for 45 weeks before sacrifice. Error bars represent SD. Monocyte populations in MCP-deficient mice. All mice were born at the expected Mendelian ratios and developed normally. The completeness and specificity of the gene deletions were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR Figure 5. Data from 10 independent experiments are combined. Mice received intraperitoneal thioglycollate. To determine whether CCR2 was required for monocyte migration from the blood to tissues, as well as from the bone marrow to the blood, we quantified the monocyte populations in the peripheral blood and peritoneum 24 hours after instillation of thioglycollate to induce peritonitis.
To look at the question more directly, we performed adoptive transfer of bone marrow cells. The cells were administered, intravenously, into WT recipients coincident with instillation of thioglycollate into the peritoneum. Serum concentrations of MCP-1 and MCP-3 peaked at approximately 24 hours after instillation of thioglycollate and then fell back to baseline levels Figure 8. At 66 hours after thioglycollate instillation, the peritoneal cells were harvested and analyzed by FACS.
Taken together, these data indicate that CCR2 plays an important role in the directed migration of monocytes from the blood to inflamed tissues. Transient rise in serum chemokine levels following intraperitoneal instillation of thioglycollate. Results are typical of 2 experiments with 4—5 mice per genotype. Adoptive transfer of bone marrow cells.
Thioglycollate was instilled into the peritoneal cavity of the recipient mice coincident with the bone marrow infusion, and the peritoneal cells were harvested 66 hours later. Results are typical of 2 experiments. Although CCR2 has a well-established role in recruiting monocytes to sites of inflammation, it has only recently been implicated in the mobilization of cells from the bone marrow to the peripheral circulation. These findings reveal an important role for CCR2 in the mobilization of hematopoietic cells from the bone marrow and provide what we believe to be the first evidence for a function of the chemokine MCP Monocytes and macrophages are highly heterogeneous populations of cells, and it has been difficult to identify surface markers that are monocyte specific.
Recent efforts have used combinations of markers in an attempt to distinguish monocytes from macrophages, neutrophils, and other leukocytes and to identify functional subsets of monocytes 10 — 12 , CD11b is highly expressed on monocytes but is also abundant on neutrophils, eosinophils, and subsets of macrophages and dendritic cells 16 , Similarly, the monocyte colony—stimulating factor receptor CD is expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells 19 , The Gr-1 antigen is composed of 2 antigens, Ly-6G and Ly-6C and is expressed on neutrophils, monocytes, and subsets of macrophages, T cells, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells Although Gr-1 is often used to identify neutrophils, it is the Ly-6G component of Gr-1 that is almost exclusively neutrophil specific; the staining of other cell types by Gr-1 is thus attributable to its Ly-6C antigen component Recent work by Taylor et al.
This population of monocytes has therefore been referred to as inflammatory monocytes 10 , 12 , The use of neutrophil-specific Ly-6G marker instead of the polymorphic Gr-1 antibody resulted in more clearly defined populations of cells in the FACS plots. To determine whether monocyte mobilization in response to inflammatory insults also requires CCR2, we fed the mice a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet for 3.
CCR2 ELISA Kit (Human) (OKEH03502)
Others have reported an increase in the blood monocyte count in both mice 25 and humans 26 in response to chronic consumption of a high-fat diet. Thus, CCR2 appears to be important in the mobilization of monocytes from the bone marrow to the blood under normal homeostatic conditions and in response to inflammation. Chemoattractants also play a role in mobilizing neutrophils.
The complement fragment C5a, a potent neutrophil activator, induces neutrophil leukocytosis 27 , as does infusion of IL-8 28 , an agonist of the neutrophil CXCR2 receptor. In contrast, our findings suggest that CCR2 is required for monocyte egress from the bone marrow. To address this question, we used homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells to target and delete these MCPs.
Because the thioglycollate-induced increase in the MCP levels peaks at 24 hours and then rapidly returns to baseline, we performed the intravenous adoptive transfer and intraperitoneal instillation of thioglycollate simultaneously. We have performed the adoptive transfer of monocytes approximately 60 hours after instillation of thioglycollate, as was done by Serbina and Pamer 32 , and find that recruitment at this time point is CCR2 independent data not shown.
Taken together, these results suggest that the early phase of monocyte migration to the inflamed peritoneum is CCR2 dependent, whereas later phases are CCR2 independent. The chemoattractants mediating late-phase migration are not known but might include other chemokines, complement fragments, or arachidonic acid metabolites. Surface expression of CCR2 marks a subpopulation of circulating monocytes and is necessary for their efficient release from the bone marrow.
Whether or not CCR2 or MCP-3 plays a role in the recirculation of these monocytes through the bone marrow is yet to be determined. Our findings reveal important roles for CCR2 and MCP-3 in monocyte homeostasis under resting conditions and in the monocytic response to inflammatory stimuli. C; Research Genetics Inc. Three positive clones were obtained and used to generate arms for targeting vector construction.
The resulting amplicon was 4, bp in correctly targeted clones. Approximately 14 kb of the surrounding MCP-5 genomic locus was sequenced. From this sequence information, primers were designed to amplify the 2. This Southern blot assay was also used for screening the mouse lines. All mice were housed and bred with littermate controls in specific pathogen—free conditions and were studied at 6—12 weeks of age.
All mice were at least Analysis of monocyte subsets.